Citrus is known as acids in Syria, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia and is known as lemons in Iraq and by al-Qawaras in Tunisia and Citrus in Egypt.


The place of origin of citrus is the tropical region extending from South-East Asia and the Malay Islands to the middle of China and India. Although the tropical citruss has been spread in some non-tropical climatic zones  in an area between north and south 35 latitudes, the region is characterized by different climatic conditions and is similar in climate to the Mediterranean basin. The global economic importance of species and varieties of citrus are divided into 7 groups:

Firstly, the types of sour varieties:

  • Medica citruss
  • Citrus jambhiri
  • Citrus lemonlimon
  • Citrus aurantifolia
  • Citrus limetta

Secondly, The types of mandarin and tangerine:

  • Citrus nobilis
  • Citrus reticulata
  • Citrus tangerine
  • Common mandarin
  • Citrus unshiu
  • Citrus clementine

Thirdly, the types of  grapefruit:

  •  grapefruit.
  •  Shaddocks

Fourth, the types of oranges:

  • Citrus Sinensis
  • Citrus aurantium

Fifth, the types of cumquat:

  • Meiwa, or large round kumquat (crassifolia )
  • Nagami, or oval kumquat (margarita)

Sixth, the types of different citrus hybrids:

This group is a hybrid weather to in its composition only types of citrus or dihybrid    (Poncirus + citrus) or trihybrid (Fortunella + Poncirus + Citron).

 The most important types of citruss is the oranges such as:

  • Washington navel orange:

It is one of the most important and common orange varieties in the world. And it’s originating from a chlamydia mutation. The fruit is characterized by the big size, small and big navel, juicy, sweet taste and average peel.  There are

             three distinct types of oranges have recently been imported such as perant,

              skagzponanza and frost. Generally, it’s not recommended to grow up the navel in

              the dry deserts area or in upper Egypt and  this is due to its high sensitivity to

             high temperature and the low of relative humidity.

  •  Common orange:

It’s characterized by highly productive trees, medium size, juicy and soft peel.

One of its flaws is the large number of seeds (18-20 seeds) and the high level of evaporation, especially at the end of the season. It would be preferable to be cultivated in the modern land restoration of the desert area. There are alot of imported genres such as Hamlin Orange which is early maturing american class, medium size, juicy, dark peel, medium number of seeds (10-12 seeds) and the PH shouldn’t exceed 0.1- 0.2.

  • Parson brown orange:

It’s American class, large size, juicy and it contains 15 seeds. In addition to yellow-orange medium thick peel.

  • Pineapple orange:

An American class, characterized by abundant production, the fruit is either medium or large size and it is also juicy. In addition to, dark Orange Peel and 15 seeds.

  • salustiana orange:

It’s a spanish chlamydia mutation, the fruit is always late for ripeness, especially in the Valencia region of Spain, the fruit is either medium or large size and it is also juicy in addition to, limited or lack number of seeds (5-1). Besides, medium-thickness of peels and it  can be stored until June or July without any effect on the harvest of trees for the next year.

  • succari orange:

It’s characterized by abundant production, the fruit is either small or large in size and the PH shouldn’t exceed 0.1- 0.2  which makes it so sweet. One of its flaws is the huge number of seeds (25 seeds)

  • Jaffa Orange:

The Jaffa orange (also known as Shamouti orange) is an orange variety with few seeds and a tough skin that makes it particularly suitable for export,  with a flavour that has been described as “excellent” and “sweet and fine.

  • Blood orange:

A blood orange is a citrus fruit that looks similar to an orange from the outside but has deep red colored fruit and juice. The red color is the result of anthocyanin, which develops when these citrus fruits ripen during warm days tempered with cooler nights.

 Mandarin and tangerine:

  • Dancy Tangerines:

    Dancy tangerines are small and have a round, flattened shape, measuring 5 to 6 centimeters in diameter. Some fruits will be slightly pear-shaped due to the presence of a small neck at the stem end. The smooth rind is a glossy, deep orange to red-orange color, and has a leathery texture. It is thin and easy to peel. Dancy tangerines have dark orange flesh that contains anywhere from 6 to 20 seeds. They have a sweet and tart flavor, with hints of spice.

  • Clementine Tangerines:

 The original Clementine tangerine grows prolifically throughout the Mediterranean basin, specifically coastal regions of North Africa. It’s testing of the tangerines from Algeria and the original Clementine variety proved that they are the same fruit. Clementine tangerines are petite, bright orange in appearance with a glossy, leathery peel rich with essential oils. The skin clings loosely to its segmented flesh allowing for easy peeling. Its flesh is juicy and has a good balance between sweetness and acidity. Clementines are generally seedless but may contain a few seeds.

  • Ponkan mandarine:

 Ponkan is probably the most widely-grown mandarin in the world, being heavily-grown in China, India, and Brazil.It is a vigorous grower and has an upright bearing. At maturity it is a medium-sized tree. Ponkan fruits are usually oblate in shape, with a loosely-adherent thick rind.

  • Satsuma Mandarin:

Satsuma mandarin may have originated in China, but it was first reported in Japan more than 700 years ago, where it is now the major citrus species grown. the fruit of tangerines and of all citrus species, is a special berry known as an hesperidium. Fruit is medium to small and shaped like a flattened sphere; sometimes slightly necked; seedless (0 to 6 seeds); has 10 to 12 segments that are loosely separable; tough carpellary membranes; and a hollow axis.

  • King mandarin:

 it was commonly referred to as the Indo-Chinese or Cambodge mandarin.  The Japanese name kunenbo (Kunembo) applies to forms that occur there and in China, Taiwan (Formosa), and Okinawa, which are somewhat different but are considered to belong to this species. The fruits are large (among the largest of the mandarins) and oblate to depressed globose. Rind thick (very thick for mandarins), moderately adherent but peelable; surface moderately smooth to rough and warty.  Deep yellowish-orange to orange at maturity. 

●    Kinnow Mandarin:

The Kinnow mandarin fruit size is medium and has more of a yellow/orange color. The fruit has seeds, is fairly easy to peel, rich flavor, very juicy.The large, frost-tolerant columnar tree has dense foliage and is a good ornamental but has a strong tendency towards alternate bearing.

Nicknamed “The Honeybell” because of its bell shape, the Minneola tangelo is a cross between a tangerine and a grapefruit. Its large size and slightly elongated “neck” make it easy to recognize. The most popular of the tangelos, seedless Minneolas are brimming with sweetly tart juice.

  •  Egyptian oranges are one of the best types of oranges around the world, and Egypt produces the largest quantities of oranges among the citrus-producing countries, especially oranges
  • Egypt has been the first in recent years in the quantities of oranges exported around the world
  •  Egypt has the longest season for citrus and oranges, especially as it starts from the first of December and ends at the end of June

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